您所在的位置: 首頁 > SAT/SSAT > SAT閱讀



2016-02-19 新通教育


    In many respects living Native Americans remain as mysterious,
    exotic, and unfathomable to their contemporaries at the end
    of the twentieth century as they were to the Line Pilgrim
    settlers over three hundred fifty years ago. Native
  5 rights, motives, customs, languages, and aspirations are
    misunderstood by Euro-Americans out of a culpable ignorance
    that is both self-serving and self-righteous. Part of
    the problem may well stem from the long-standing tendency
    of European or Euro-American thinkers to regard
  10 Native Americans as fundamentally and profoundly
  different,motivated more often by mysticism than by
  ambition, charged more by unfathomable visions than
  by intelligence or introspection.

  This idea is certainly not new. Rousseau's "noble
  15 savages’,wandered, pure of heart, through a pristine world.
    Since native people were simply assumed to be incomprehensible,
    they were seldom comprehended. Their societies
  were simply beheld, often through cloudy glasses, and
  rarely probed by the tools of logic and deductive analysis
  20 automatically reserved for cultures prejudged to be
  “civilized.” And on those occasions when Europeans
  did attempt to formulate an encompassing theory, it was
  not, ordinarily, on a human-being-to-human-being basis,
  but rather through an ancestor-descendant model. Native
  25 Americans, though obviously contemporary with their
  observers, were somehow regarded as ancient, examples
  of what Stone Age Europeans must have been like.

  It's a great story, an international crowd pleaser, but
  there is a difficulty; Native Americans were,and are,
  30 Homo sapiens. Though often equipped with a
  shovel-shaped incisor tooth, eyes with epicanthic folds’
  or an extra molar cusp. Native American people have had
  to cope, for the last forty thousand years or so, just like
  everyone else. Their cultures have had to make internal sense
  35, their medicines have had to work consistently and
  practically, their philosophical explanations have had to be
  reasonably satisfying and dependable, or else the ancestors
  of those now called Native Americans would truly have
  vanished long ago.

  40 The reluctance in accepting this obvious fact comes
  from the Eurocentric conviction that the West holds a
  monopoly on science, logic, and clear thinking. To
  admit that other, culturally divergent viewpoints are
  equally plausible is to cast doubt on the monolithic
  45 center of Judeo-Christian belief: that there is but one
  of everything—God, right way, truth—and Europeans
  alone knew what that was. If Native American cultures
  were acknowledged as viable,then European societies
  were something less than an exclusive club. It is little
  50 wonder, therefore, that Native Americans were perceived
  not so much as they were but as they had to be,from a
  European viewpoint. They dealt in magic,not method.

  They were stuck in their past, not guided by its precedents.
  Such expedient misconception argues strongly for the
  55 development and dissemination of a more accurate, more
  objective historical account of native peoples—a goal
  easier stated than accomplished. Native American societies
  were nonliterate before and during much of the early period
  of their contact with Europe, making the task of piecing
  60 together a history particularly demanding. The familiar and
  reassuring kinds of written documentation found in European
  societies of equivalent chronological periods do not exist,
  and the forms of tribal record preservation available—oral
  history, tales,mnemonic devices, and religious rituals—
  65 strike university-trained academics as inexact, unreliable,
  and suspect. Eastern historians, culture-bound by their
  own approach to knowledge, are apt to declaim that next to
  nothing, save the evidence of archaeology, can be known
  of early Native American life. To them, an absolute void
  70 is more acceptable and rigorous than an educated guess.

  However, it is naive to assume that any culture's history
  is perceived without subjective prejudice. Every modem
  observer, whether he or she was schooled in the traditions
  of the South Pacific or Zaire, of Hanover, New Hampshire,
  75 or Vienna, Austria, was exposed at an early age to one or
  another form of folklore at>out Native Americans. For
  some, the very impressions about Native American tribes
  that initially attracted them to the field of American history
  are aspects most firmly rooted in popular myth and stereo-
  80 type. Serious scholarship about Native American culture and
  history is unique in that it requires an initial, abrupt, and
  wrenching demythologizing. Most students do not start
  from point zero, but from minus zero, and in the process are
  often required to abandon cherished childhood fantasies of
  85 superheroes or larger-than-life villains.
  ♦ Rousseau was an eighteenth-century French philosopher.

  13. The reference to ‘the Pilgrim settlers” (lines 3-4) is used to
  (A) invite reflection about a less complicated era
  (B) suggest the lasting relevance of religious issues
  (C) establish a contrast with today's reformers
  (D) debunk a myth about early colonial life
  (E) draw a parallel to a current condition

  14. In line 12,"charged" most nearly means
  (A) commanded
  (B) indicated
  (C) replenished
  (D) inspired
  (E) attacked

  15. In line 14, the reference to Rousseau is used to emphasize the
  (A) philosophical origins of cultural bias
  (B) longevity of certain types of misconceptions
  (C) tendency to fear the unknown
  (D) diversity among European intellectual traditions
  (E) argument that even great thinkers are fallible

  16. The phrase "international crowd pleaser" (line 28) refers to
  (A) an anthropological fallacy
  (B) an entertaining novelty
  (C) a harmless deception
  (D) a beneficial error
  (E) a cultural revolution

  17. The "difficulty" referred to in line 29 most directly undermines
  (A) the ancestor-descendant model used by European observers
  (B) the possibility for consensus in anthropological inquiry
  (C) efforts to rid popular culture of false stereotypes
  (D) theories based exclusively on logic and deductive reasoning
  (E) unfounded beliefs about early European communities

  18. Lines 34-37 ("Their cultures ... dependable") describe
  (A) customs that fuel myths about a society
  (B) contradictions that conventional logic cannot resolve
  (C) characteristics that are essential to the survive of any people
  (D) criteria that Western historians traditionally use to assess cultures
  (E) preconditions that must be met before a culture can influence others

  19. The two sentences that begin with ‘They” in lines 52-53 serve to express the
  (A) way one group perceived another
  (B) results of the latest research
  (C) theories of Native Americans about Europeans
  (D) external criticisms that some Native American accepted
  (E) survival techniques adopted by early human societies

  20. In lines 66-70, the author portrays Western historians as
  (A) oblivious to the value of archaeological research
  (B) disadvantaged by an overly narrow methodology
  (C) excessively impressed by prestigious credentials
  (D) well meaning but apt to do more harm than good
  (E) anxious to contradict the faulty conclusions of their predecessors

  21. The "educated guess’’ mentioned in line 70 would most likely be based on
  (A) compilations of government population statistics
  (B) sources such as oral histories and religious rituals
  (C) analyses of ancient building structures by archaeologists
  (D) measurements of fossils to determine things such as physical characteristics
  (E) studies of artifacts discovered in areas associated with particular tribes

  22. The geographical references in lines 74-75 serve to underscore the
  (A) influence Native American culture has had outside the United States
  (B) argument that academic training is undergoing increasing homogenization
  (C) universality of certain notions about Native American peoples
  (D) idea that Native Americans have more in common with other peoples than is acknowledged
  (E) unlikelihood that scholars of Native American history will settle their differences

  23. The passage suggests that “Most students” (line 82) need to undergo a process of
  (A) rebelliousness
  (B) disillusionment
  (C) hopelessness
  (D) inertia
  (E) self-denial

  24. In line 83,"minus zero” refers to the
  (A) nature of the preconceptions held by most beginning scholars of Native American culture
  (B) quality of scholarship about Native American cultures as currently practiced at most universities
  (C) reception that progressive scholars of Native American history have received in academia
  (D) shortage of written sources available to students of Native American history
  (E) challenges.that face those seeking grants to conduct original research about Native American history




課程名稱 學習目標 班級特色
SAT入門班 積累詞匯 豐富寫作素材 針對性強 高效提高學生的能力 報名
SAT1800分鉆石小班 達到SAT1800分水平 2-4人小班教學 報名
SAT精品2000分沖刺班 達到SAT2000+ 強化、提高解題能力 報名
SAT基礎VIP1V1課程 SAT沖至2000分 全真? 私人定制 報名
SAT北美名校班 達到SAT1800分水平 注重考試細節,真題歸類練習講解 報名
SAT強化課程 SAT 2100+分 小班名師授課 報名


  • SAT官方作文題庫


    格式: doc 大。358KB

  • SAT語法練習題題庫


    格式: doc 大。219KB

  • SAT寫作歷年真題


    格式: doc 大。179KB

  • 考試提醒
  • 報名
  • 考試
  • 查分

近期考試:8月25 10月6日 11月3日 12月1日


近期考試:8月25 10月6日 11月3日 12月1日


近期考試:8月25 10月6日 11月3日 12月1日

  • 考前預測
  • 名師押題 縮小范圍100%命中
北京赛车PK10冠军大小计划当天计划表 北京PK10计划 重庆时时精准计划 极速赛车计划 幸运飞艇官方计划