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GRE詞匯題型分類——閱讀理解

作者:新通教育

2015-10-29 新通教育

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In the early years of television, Vladimir Zworykin was considered its inventor, at least publicly. His loudest champion was his boss David Sarnoff, the president of RCA and the“father of television,” as he was and is widely regarded. Modern historians agree that Philo Farnsworth, a self-educated prodigy who was the first to transmit live images, was television's technical inventor. But Farnsworth's contributions have gone relatively unnoticed, since it was Sarnoff, not Farnsworth, who put televisions into living rooms and, even more importantly, who successfully borrowed from the radio industry the paradigm of advertiser-funded programming, a paradigm still dominant today. In contrast, Farnsworth lacked business sway and was unable to realize his dream of television as an educational tool. Perhaps Sarnoff simply adapted his business ideas from other industries such as newspapers, for instance, replacing the revenue from subscriptions and newsstand purchases with that of television set sales, but Sarnoff promoted himself as a visionary. Some critics argue that Sarnoff’s construct has damaged programming content. Others contend that it merely created a democratic platform allowing audiences to choose the programming they desire.
  
The primary purpose of the passage is to
  (A) correct public misconception about Farnsworth’s role in developing early television programs
  (B) debate the influence of television on popular culture
  (C) challenge the current public perception of Vladimir Zworykin
  (D) chronicle the events that led from the development of radio to the invention of the television
  (E) describe Sarnoff’s influence on the public perception of televisions inception, and debate the impact of Sarnoff’s paradigm
  
It can be inferred from the second paragraph of the passage that
  (A) television shows produced by David Sarnoff and Vladimir Zworykin tended to earn negative reviews
  (B) educational programs cannot draw as large an audience as sports programs
  (C) a number of critics feel that Sarnoff’s initial decision to earn television revenue through advertising has had a positive or neutral impact on content
  (D) educational programs that are aired in prime time, the hours during which the greatest number of viewers are watching television, are less likely to earn a profit than those that are aired during the daytime hours
  (E) in matters of programming, the audiences preferences should be more influential than those of the advertisers
 
  Because of the proximity and likeness of Mars to Earth, scientists have long speculated about the possibility of life on Mars. Roughly three centuries ago, astronomers observed Martian polar ice caps, and later scientist’s discovered other similarities to Earth, including length of day and axial tilt. But in 1965, photos taken by the Mariner 4 probe revealed a Mars without rivers, oceans or signs of life. Moreover, in the 1990s, it was discovered that unlike Earth, Mars no longer possessed a substantial global magnetic field, allowing celestial radiation to reach the planet's surface and solar wind to eliminate much of Mars's atmosphere over the course of several billion years. More recent probes have investigated whether there was once liquid water on Mars. Some scientists believe that the presence of certain geological landforms definitively resolves this question. Others posit that wind erosion or carbon dioxide oceans may be responsible for these formations. Mars rovers Opportunity and Spirit, which landed on Mars in 2004, have both discovered geological evidence of past water activity.
  
These findings substantially bolster claims that there was once life on Mars.
  The passage is primarily concerned with which of the following?
  (A) Disproving a widely accepted theory.
  (B) Initiating a debate about the possibility of life on Mars.
  (C) Presenting evidence in support of a controversial claim.
  (D) Describing the various discoveries made concerning the possibility of life on Mars.
  (E) Detailing the findings of the Mars rovers Opportunity and Spirit.

It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following characteristics of a planet would imply that it might support life? Select all that apply.
  A. A significant global magnetic field
  B. Evidence of liquid carbon-dioxide on the planet’s surface
  C. A size roughly approximating that of Earth

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